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There are many references in the early Louisiana records to place names that have changed or some that remain the same but aren't incorporated areas. This page will provide the old and new names or a description of the old and current location. Please send any additions to cajun @ thecajuns.com
|First Acadian Coast||St. James Parish|
Second Acadian Coast
Note: The church established in 1772 was named La Iglesia de la Ascension de Nostro Senor Jesu Cristo da Lafourche de los Chetimaches (the Ascension of Our Lord Catholic Church of Lafourche of the Chitimaches). The church parish was also referred to as the Parish of Ascension of Valenzuela; the Parishof Valenzuela; and, Ascension de La Fourche
Note: The parish seat of the civil parish is Donaldsonville; the church parish is Ascension. Valenzuela was on Bayou Lafourche near the current city of Plattenville
|Ainse de la Graise "Greazy Bend" [L'Anse a la Graisse] and Nuevo Madrid - located on the shores of the Mississippi River about 12 leagues below the mouth of the Ohio River||New Madrid, Missouri|
- Poste de Arkansea
at Quapaw Indians Village of Osotouy, near mouth of Arkansas River at Mississippi River. Moved several times because of flooding. Named Fort Carlos III under Spanish Rule. In 1862, the Confederates constructed a massive earthen fortification at the site known as Fort Hindman. The Union Army destroyed Fort Hindman in January 1863, ensuring control of the Arkansas River.
|State of Arkansas - original site about 9 miles south of Gillett, Arkansas.|
Assumption Parish Church and Civil Parish
Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Assumption of the B.V.M.) was established in 1793. Located at 119 Highway 308. Also known as Parish of Assumption of Lafourche
|Church is located in Plattenville; the civil parish is Assumption. Assumption Parish was part of Lafourche Interior which included parts of Ascension, Assumption and current-day Lafourche and Terrebonne parishes.|
|Attakapas Post||Current parishes of St. Martin, St. Mary, Lafayette, Vermilion & Iberia|
|Baillou [bayou] aux Canes||near Nementau [Mermentau]|
Founded in 1779 by Galvez to settle a group of Canary Islanders. It never managed to have it's own church and was soon abandoned.
|South of New Orleans on the shores of Lake Salvador and near Barataria Bay. There is also a Bayou and a passage of the same name.|
|Baton Rouge; Dironbourg||Baton Rouge|
|Bayou Carlin||Delcambre Canal|
|Bayou des Ecores||Thompson's Creek|
Mugulasha Indian village captured by Bayougoulas. In 1699 Bienville here found Tonti’s letter of 1686 to LaSalle. Father Paul Du Ru built first chapel in Louisiana near village in 1700
|Part of White Castle in Iberville Parish|
|Bayougoula Village [also
Bayougoula Village, 1713. Settled by Canadians and French; later by Germans, Acadians, Spaniards. Here in 1730 Governor Perrier organized expedition against Natchez Indians. Early cattle raising center. French records referred to area as Tabiscana
|Bayou Queue de Tortue [Bayou of line of turtles]||
Part of the Mermentau River Watershed. Begins near Lafayette and is the natural border separating Lafayette Parish and Acadia Parish to the West and Vermilion Parish to the South. Was first settled by the Attakapas Indians and named after Chief Celestine de la Tortue - see the Indian Chiefs in SW LA records.The Queue de Tortue Indian Village was near present-day Rayne, LA.
|Beau Bassin||Area in North Lafayette Parish between Bayous Vermilion and Carencro|
|Bluffs of Walnut Hills||Vicksburg, MS|
|Boré Plantation||Audubon Park
Audubon Park. This site 1781-1820 Plantation of Jean Etienne Boré (1741-1820) First Mayor of N.O. 1803-1804. Here Boré first granulated sugar in 1795. Purchased for park in 1871. Site of World’s Industrial and Cotton Exposition 1884-1885.
|Bois de Mallet||Swords/Mallet area: a small community about halfway between Opelousas and Eunice|
Named for Dr. Walter Brashear who was born in MD abt. 1776‚and died in Louisiana in 1860. Famed as surgeon in Kentucky, 1806. Settled Attakapas, LA, 1809. Became large landowner, sugar planter in St. Mary, serving many years in Louisiana Legislature. Town of Brashear, now Morgan City, incorporated 1860.
Early gateway from the Mississippi to Teche. Site of Tiger Island Plantation of Dr. Walter Brashear, 1860; renamed 1876, for Charles Morgan who made the port a leading steamboat, railroad hub.
|Breaux Bridge - see Pont du Breaux below|
|Broussard [Broussardville] - see Côtes Gélees below|
|Cabanocey [Cabannocé, Cabannoche, Cabahannocer]||St. James Parish|
|Cadodacho River||Red River|
Zone between les Chapitoulas & the Demeuves Concession 5 leagues above the New Orleans along the Mississippi River.
Cantrelle Parish [Parish of Cantrelle]
Note: The first church in the current parish of St. James was at the town of St. James on the West side of the Mississippi River. The church was later moved to Covent on the East side of the River.
|St. James Parish|
|Carlin Pond [Marais Carlin] - see Grand Marais|
|Carlin's Settlement - Founded 1808, Became the Parish Seat of St. Mary Parish in 1811 and the first incorporated town in St. Mary Parish in 1820.||Franklin, LA - named after Benjamin Franklin|
| Carrollton, Town of
Laid out by Charles Zimpel in 1833 on site of Macarty Plantation, formerly uppermost part of Bienville’s 1719 land grant. Jefferson Parish seat 1852-1874. Annexed 1874 by New Orleans. 1854 courthouse designed by Henry Howard
|Annexed by New Orleans in 1874|
Note: Choupitoulas Indians - name meant "river people"
|Charles Town, Charleston
M. and Mme. LeBleu of Bordeaux, France were the first
recorded Europeans to settle the area around 1781 [Note There is some confusion re Barthelemy LeBleu and Martin Camersac LeBleu who had natural children with Josette Lamirande who married Barthelemy LeBleu at Pointe Coupee in 1769]. The area they settled
is now known as the LeBleu Settlement. Charles Sallier married LeBleu's
daughter, Catherine. The Salliers built their home on the shell beach
where Lake Charles now stands. Afterwards, the lake became known as
"Charlie's lake". By 1860 this area was being called "Charles Town".
Many of Charles Sallier's descendants are buied in Sallier Cemetery,
near St. Patrick's Hospital.
|Chicot Noir [black stump]||Jeanerette, LA
Jeanerette is named for its founder and first postmaster, John Jeanerette, who also operated a local tavern and store.
Originally called Church Landing because in 1774 the first church in the Opelousas Territory was built near the landing on Bayou Courtableau
The Spanish established a fort across the Mississippi River from Natchez in 1768. It was abandoned in 1779 after Galvez captured Natchez. When Gayoso de Lemos was named Commandant of the district of Natchez, he built an elegant residence on his estate across the river and named it Concordia. The name was chosen to recognize the good relations that Gayoso had established with the anglo inhabitants in the Natchez District. In 1798, Jose Vidal, Commandant of Natchez obtained a land grant on the opposite side of the river from Natchez. The new Spanish Post was named Concordia because of the proximity to Gayoso's estate. A few years later, a new parochial parish was named Concordia and the fort was renamed Vidalia.
|Vidalia, LA & Concordia Parish|
Côtes Gélees [frozen hills] - see below for reason for this name and also why sites on a prairie were called île, pointe and anse. Area between present-day Pilette and Broussard.
Note: Valsin Broussard is the founder of Broussard, LA. He was a planter and merchant. He served as first postmaster of Côte Gelée from December 13, 1856 to June 22, 1866, and again from July 24, 1874, to September 19, 1881; Côte Gelée Post Office renamed Broussardville (now Broussard) in his honor on October 7, 1881.
|Côte des Allemands [German Coast]||Present-day St. Charles and St. John the Baptist Parishes|
in Assumption Parish
In 1860, this was the site of several sugar plantations and a post office. Actual location is not determined, but from an old map it appears to have been on the west side of Bayou LaFourche, in or near the present town of Bellerose, which is six "air" miles southwest of Donaldsonville.
|Cypremort Prairie||Cypremort Point & Louisa|
Divisions of Colonial French and Spanish Louisiana
In 1721, French Colonial Louisiana was divided into nine districts: Alibamos, Mobile, Biloxi, New Orleans, Natchez, The Yazoo, Illinois, Arkansas and Natchitoches [which included Ayoyelles].
In 1769, O'Reilly abolished the old organizations and established a new political and military unit which he called the Province of Louisiana. The Province was divided into eleven districts with a Commandant who was usually taken from the army or the militia. The eleven districts [also called Posts] were: Illinois, Natchitoches, first half of the German Coast [parish of St. Charles]; second half of the German Coast [parish of St. John the Baptist], Pointe Coupee [including Avoyelles], Opelousas [included Attakapas], Iberville Coast, the Fourche of Chitimachas, Kabahan [Cabanocey], Rapides [in 1805, Avoyelles was combine with Rapides and became Rapides Country. In December 1807, the Avoyelles District of Rapides became Ayoyelles Parish] and St. Genevieve.
In 1763, The Mississippi Valley east of the river, except for New Orleans, was lost to England at the end of the French and Indian War. Galvez later recaptured Baton Rouge and the West Florida parishes. In 1803, under American Control, Louisiana was divided into the Orleans Territory and the District of Louisiana which later became all the states west of the Mississippi River. In 1805, the Orleans Territory was divided into 12 Counties [see map] and the Counties divided into Parishes in 1807. In 1812, the Orleans Territory became the State of Louisiana.
|Current State of Louisiana; Alabama, Florida and States created from the land East of the Mississippi River ceded to England in 1763 at the end of the French and Indian War; and, all States created along the Mississippi River as a result of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.|
Location of Dugasville shown on a LOUISIANA "BAYOU TECHE GUNBOAT / PLANTATION / OBSTRUCTION" Map - The Bayou Teche of Louisiana was a major means of travel for both the Confederate Forces and Federal Forces during the Civil War. It was also the only means of travel for many Plantation owners. This map was drawn by Captain E.B. Trinidad of the U.S. Mail Steamer "Warren Bell" in 1867 and identifies all of the gun-boat wrecks obstructing the Bayou Teche from the mouth of the Atchafalaya River to the town of St. Martinsville, LA. Boats such as the C.S. gun-boat "Hart", C.S. gun-boat "Cotton", and the infamous gun-boat "Diana" and many others are identified with their accurate location where they were sunk in the Bayou. Plantation bridges, Live Oak Trees, Steamboat Hulls, Sawmills, and many other features are also identified. This copy of the original map is 23"X36" in size and is invaluable to any researcher or relic hunter.
|Dupart's Bend||Present-day Plaquemine Point in Iberville Parish|
| English Turn [Detours des Anglais]
Historical Marker - So named because in this bend, 1699, Bienville, coming downstream, met the British who had come up river to choose site for a settlement. Bienville convinced Captain Lewis Banks that the territory was in possession of the French. Early concessions were established in the vicinity
|English Turn [commonly called St. Bernard Parish]|
|Fause Riviere [False River]
Upper end of Fause Riviere, old Mississippi River bed. Resulted when the river followed the narrow stream over a neck of land (Pointe Coupee). Used in 1699 by Iberville and party to shorten their route up river. Nearby Fort St. Joseph established. c. 1718; St. Francis church, 1738.
Narrow stream over portage widened by Iberville and Bienville, 1699. Shortly after 1700 Mississippi River had formed point cut off, a crescent shaped land, Pointe Coupee.
|Felicianas - named in honor of Felicidad de St. Maxent, daughter of Antoine de St. Maxent and wife of Governor Bernardo de Galvez.||East and West Feliciana Parishes|
Named for O.J. Flagg, 1870. Now a part of Hahnville. Letter left here by Tonti, 1686 with Quinipissa Chief for LaSalle. Taensa Village, 1713. De Meuve, French Concession, 1718. Site included grant to Joseph Roi de Villere, 1765.
|Now part of Hahnville, LA|
|Fort Bisland||Calumet, LA|
|Fort de la
Boulaye in Plaquemines Parish
Also known as Fort Iberville and Fort du Mississippi, this fort was located on the west bank of the Mississippi River. It was built in 1700 as a 28' square blockhouse with a half dozen cannons. Its strategic location helped the French hold this part of the river and thus the state. In 1704 or so, it was abandoned.
near Myrtle Grove, LA
|Fort Bute - built 1766 on Bayou Manchac about 115 miles up the Mississippi River from New Orleans. It was captured on September 7, 1779 by Galvez||N/A|
|Fort Condé, Mobile, AL||Renamed Fort Charlotte in 1763 by the British at the end of the French and Indian War. Surrendered to General Galvez on March 14, 1780 and held by the Spanish until 1813. About one-third of the fort was reconstructed at 80% scale during the 1970s. Fort Conde now serves as the official Welcome Center for the City of Mobile and visitors can explore the reconstructed walls and rooms on a daily basis. See Wikipedia Article|
|Fort Duquesne||Pittsburg, PA|
| Fort Jackson in Plaquemines Parish
This old American military post was located on SH 23, and the west bank of the Mississippi River, 2.5 miles southeast of Triumph, about 70 miles southeast of New Orleans. It was built in 1822-1832, and occupied in 1861 by the Confederate Army. It is a large, star-shaped brick fort with a surrounding moat. It was built to protect New Orleans, but on April 18, 1862, Admiral Farragut and his fleet of 43 boats, battled the fort for over a week. New Orleans fell, the fort surrendered, and his forces occupied them. Since 1961, Fort Jackson has been a National Historic Monument.
|Fort Maurepas: The Birth of Louisiana 1699 -1709 -See Old Biloxi|
|Fort Nogales - popularly known as the "Gibraltar of Louisiana"||Vicksburg, MS|
|Fort New Richmond
Name given to Baton Rouge by the British who gained control in 1763. The Spanish renamed it Fort San Carlos [Fort St. Charles] in 1779 when it was captured by Galvez and it was the capital of the province of Western Florida.
Note: Baton Rouge [Red Stick] was the original name given by Lasalle
Fort Rosalie [Fort Panmure from 1764 - 1779]
Port City on the Mississippi River about 60 miles S.W. of Vicksburg, and about 250 miles upriver from the mouth of the Mississippi River. It was settled by Bienville in 1716 and rebuilt in the 1730's. It was occupied by the British in 1764 who renamed it Fort Panmure. In 1779, it was captured by Galvez and the Spanish held it until 1798 when the United States took over. It was abandoned in 1804.
The Old Fort Area is part of the Natchez National Historical Park.
|Fort St. Joseph
Located on the St. Joseph River; Est. 1691 by the French; after 1761, held by the British; captured by Native Americans in Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, but was recaptured by the British; captured by the Spanish during the American Revolution; some moved to LA
Known as the City of Four Flags
|Fort St. Louis de Natchez||Near Vidalia on the west side of the Mississippi River [Note: Natchez, MS is on the east-side of the River across from Vidalia.|
|Fort San Carlos [St. Charles]
See Fort New Richmond above
Fort St. Phillip [San Felipe] - built by the French in 1746 & rebuilt by the Spanish in 1791.
See Wikipedia article for history
|Original site was near present-day Triumph in Plaquemines Parish, LA|
Fort St. Pierre
Fort St. Pierre Site is an archaeological site in Warren Co. MS, that was the location of a French fort during 1719-1729, center of a community named Yazoo Post. The site has additional importance for its use in dating other archaeological sites due to its integrity and brief period of use.
It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2000.
A quite extensive history of the site is available.
Other names for the site include: Fort St. Peter; Fort St. Claude des Yasous; Yazoo Post
See Location on Map of Colonial French Louisiana
|Fort Tombecbe, Al||Fort Tombecbe (or Tombecbee), located near present-day Epes, Sumter County, was one of four forts built by France in the early eighteenth century in Alabama. Like Fort Toulouse, Fort Tombecbe was established to protect France's holdings from westward expansion by the British into the French colony of Louisiana. It also served as a trading post, solidifying France's relations with the Choctaws, who were the most powerful French ally in the area, and was also held by the British and the Spanish during the colonial period. See Wikipedia Article|
|Fort Toulouse I & II on the Coosa (also called Franca choka chula, Fort des Alibamons and Fort Toulouse des Alibamons)
Named in honor of Admiral Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, the Count of Toulouse who was the dominant member of the Council of Marine which performed the function of secretary or minister of the navy and of colonies from 1715 to 1718. He was the legitimized son of King Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Toulouse was one of the known provinces in southern France.
The fort was established to defend French Louisiana against the incursions of Georgians and Carolinians and their Indian allies. It was referred to as Fort or Post des Alibamons or simply as aux Alibamons. It was later named Fort Jackson in honor of President Andrew Jackson.
The site of Fort Toulouse, established by the French in 1717, was near the junction of the Coosa River and the Tallapousa about 4 miles south of current-day Wetumpka, Alabama and 10 miles north of Montgomery, Alabama. In 1751, the site of the Fort was moved about 100 south of the original Fort Toulouse I. This site is known as Fort Toulouse II and it was designed by Francois Saucier in 1750. Fort Toulouse II was occupied by the French until 1763 when the territory east of the Mississippi River went to England. The soldiers and settlers from Fort Toulouse went to Mobile and then to Louisiana [most ended up in the Opelousas Post]
|Franklin, LA - see Carlin's Settlement above|
|Galveztown [Villa de Galvez]
Old Spanish town on the south side of the junction of Amite River and Bayou Manchac [aka Iberville River]. Settled by Anglo-Americans, 1776-78, seeking Spanish refuge during the American Revolution, and by Canary Islanders (Islenos). Named for Spanish Governor Bernardo de Galvez.
See the report dated January 15, 1779 from Galvez to Galvez [Source: Spain in the Mississippi Valley, Vol. II, Part I, pages 326-327]
On August 19, 1779, Galvez officially recognized
America's independence from England and decided to help the Americans.
Between August 28 and September 10, men from Galveztown captured 7
British Ships and 110 prisoners on Bayou Manchac. Galvez went on to take
Fort Bute on Bayou Manchac, the Fort at Baton Rouge, and finally the
Fort at Mobile. This brought West Florida back under Spanish rule. He
continued battling the British until he ultimately recaptured all of
Note: The current community of Galvez is not at the same location as Galveztown. It is to the west of the original Galveztown
|First German Coast||St. Charles Parish|
|Second German Coast||St. John the Baptist Parish|
On Germantown Road, seven miles northeast of Minden. This old German socialist-utopian colony was founded in 1835 and lasted for 37 years. Three original buildings remain, and other buildings have been re-created. According to the historical marker the community was active until 1971.
First and Second Acadian Coasts: St. James and Ascension Parishes along the Mississippi River.
|Grand Côte||Weeks Island|
|Grand Marais [Big Pond] - See Marais Carlin|
|Gregg - See Marais Carlin|
Hebert Cove, Vermilion Parish, LA
Named after Francois Hebert and his descendants
Theall, Vermilion Parish, LA
Hebert's Cove was officially named as Theall by Joseph Theall who had been appointed Postmaster of the village.
|Home Place||Original Name for The Shadows-on-the-Teche|
|Illinois Region [including modern-day Indiana] - see Map of French Colonial LA and Map of Colonial Ark which also has the locations of the Illinois Region posts/forts|
|St. Clair, Cahokia, Co., Illinois|
|Fort Assumption [Chickasaw Bluffs]||Memphis, TN - see Wikipedia Article|
| Fort de Chartres
Church: St. Anne
|Fort de Chartres is located four miles west of Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, on State Route 155, or 37 miles south of Belleville, Illinois|
It was the main settlement in the Illinois Region during the French and Spanish Colonial Periods.
Church: Notre-Dame de la Conception
Note: The excerpt below is from pages 149 & 151 of the book The Story of Old Ste. Genevieve by Gregory M. Franzwa. Page 150 is a map showing Kaskaskia in 1880 and the mid-1960s. A copy of the book is for sale - see the books page.
"...When old Kaskaskia was founded on the west bank of the Kaskaskia the Mississippi was about two miles to the west. The stretch between the two rivers was alluvium and subject to continuing erosion and inundation.
In 1844 the Mississippi boiled out of its banks, but didn't reach Kaskaskia. It did cause the Kaskaskia river to back up to the point where its waters were eight feet deep in the streets.
By 1881 the Mississippi had come within 400 feet of the Kaskaskia river. The little town was caught in a squeeze. In April of that year the Mississippi broke through just above Kaskaskia. The .bed of the little river wasn't large enough to hold a fraction of the Mississippi's current, and the flooding was total.
The Mississippi all but abandoned its loop around the old town, and the new channel went down the Kaskaskia. Within a few years the inhabitants of old Kaskaskia had gone to the high ground in the middle of the peninsula - their old homes had gone permanently beneath the Mississippi.
Old residents can recall rowing over the site of the old town and seeing wells and other stone structures looming beneath the muddy waters...."
|Village of Kaskaskia [historical landmark] in Randolph County, Illinois|
Fort Massac [Massiac]
Fort Massac (1757-1764, 1794-1817, 1850-1864) - First established by the French in 1757 as Fort Ascension. Renamed Fort Massiac in 1759 after the French minister of marine, the Marquis de Massac. Renamed again by the Americans in 1794 as Fort Massac. Finally abandoned in 1864.
|Fort Massac State Park, Massac County, Illinois - see Fort Massac|
|Fort Ouiatenon||The first fortified European settlement in what is now called Indiana. It was a French trading post on the Wabash River located approximately three miles southwest of modern-day West Lafayette. The name 'Ouiatenon' is a French rendering of the name in the Wea language, waayaahtanonki, meaning 'place of the whirlpool' - see Wikipedia Article|
|Vincennes, Knox Co., Indiana|
|Prairie du Rocher
|Prairie du Rocher, Randolph Co., Illinois|
|End of Illinois Region Entries|
|Iberville River [River D'Iberville]||Bayou Manchac - Amite River|
|Indian Creek [also Lieu dit Chetimachas]||Charenton
[Note: Charenton was also the original site for New Iberia. The site was moved when the spring rains flooded the area]
|Isle aux Cannes||area SE of New Iberia between the Commercial Canal and Lydia|
|L'ile des Cypres||South of present-day Breaux Bridge|
|Isle aux Marais||Bayougoula Towhead, an island in the Mississippi River above White Castle, Louisiana|
|Ile Piquant[e], Isle Piquant[e]
Note: Piquant is French for "pricky" or "prickly". The Spanish word "picante" means sharp. Apparently there were prickly plants growing in the area.
|Current day Patoutville|
Originally a part of Jefferson Parish, this area was incorporated as Jefferson City in 1850. By 1860 its population was 5,107, including 131 free black citizens, It was annexed by the City of New Orleans in 1870
|Annexed by City of New Orleans in 1870|
|L'ance (anse) a (au) Michaud - see La Pointe de Repos|
Village [Founded November 1763]
[Also known as Paincourt]
Named for founder Pierre Laclede Liguest. In 1764, settlers from the east bank villages of Cahokia and St. Philippe moved to the west bank in 1764 because the territory to the east was given to England at the end of the French and Indian War. The settlement became known as Laclede's Village, but the official name of St. Louis was given to the village by Pierre in honor of the Crusader King, Louis IX of France.
|St. Louis, Missouri|
Founded in 1843 by Father Antoine Desire Megret, a native of Abbeville, France, on land purchased from Joseph LeBlanc.
Mentioned in a 1791 letter by Galvez as one of 5 places established. The exact location is undetermined but it was in the region known as Terre aux Boeufs. It was also known as San Bernardo de Galvez and Nueva Galvez
|St. Bernard in St. Bernard Parish|
Francaise [aka Londell]
La Cote Francaise Settled in 1800 via Amite River by French, German,and Italian emigres. Jovial Creole culture was unique. Cypress sawmills, trapping, shingle making, farms and steamboat service once thrived here
|La Côte aux Puces - "la Costa de las Pulgas"||Area on the Bayou Teche between current-day Olivier to below current-day Jeanerette encompassing the current Grand Mary [aka Grand Marais] community. Surnames included Andrus, Borel, Johnson. The mulatres libre, quadroon and octoroon surnames included Boutte, De Lille, Frilot and Olivier.|
La Fausse Pointe
Note: There are numerous references to La Fausse Pointe, but the entry for the death of Joseph Broussard refers to Le Grand Bois at La Fausse Pointe.
BROUSSARD, Joseph - inhabitant at le grand bois at la fausse pointe (dec. Rene & Anne GODIN) died 18 Oct. 1815 at age 38 years at his home; buried 19 Oct. 1815 in the parish cemetery. Fr. Gabriel ISABEY (SM Ch.: v.4, #998)
Note: Initial settlement at current-day Donaldsonville and was part of Second Acadian Coast
|Lafourche, Terrebonne and parts of Ascension and Assumption parishes.|
|Lafourche: Upper and Lower [Lafourche Interior]||
Upper Lafourche covered Ascension and Assumption Parishes along the Lafourche Bayou. Lower Lafourche [Lafourche Interior] covered the present-day parishes of Lafourche and Terrebonne.
l'Église de La Nouvelle-Acadie aux Attakapas [The Church of New Acadia at Attakapas] - name given by the priest who accompanied the Acadians to Attakapas in 1765
A couple of records that shows St. Joseph's Of Attakapas is:
ALEXANDRE - esclave of Mr. GREVABERT (Rose - esclave of Mr. GEVABERT) bt. 1 Dec. 1776 Spons: Louis GREVABER & Genevieve ROBICHO. Fr. Louis MARIE, Capucin of Opelousas during the absence of a priest in St. Joseph's of Attapakas Post. (SM Ch.: Folio B-1)
BARRA, Hipolite (Vincent & Marie Francoise LABEE) b. 15 March 1776, bt. 24 Nov. 1776 Spons: Jean LABBE & Marie LABBE. Fr. Louis MARIE, Capucin of Opelousas, during the absence of a priest in St. Joseph's of Attapakas Post. (SM Ch.: Folio B-1)
One record that shows St. Bernard Parish is:
BROUSSARD, Vallery (Glode [Claude] & Louisse (sic) EBER [HEBERT]) b. 15 May 1776, bt. 27 Aug. 1777 at St. Bernard Parish of Attakapas Post Spons: Jean Batiste EBER & Elisabelle BROSSAR. (SM Ch.: Folio B-1)
|The first mention of a physical structure for a church in Attakapas was May 1773. As explained on the left-side, the church had 2 other names in 1776 & 1777. The present St. Martin de Tours church was built in 1844|
|La Grande Pointe||Cecilia|
|La Grosse Ile du Vermilion||Marsh Island|
La Jonction [The Junction][Also La Murière]
Arnaudville was initially called La Murière. Later it was known as La Jonction because it is on the Bayou Teche where it crosses from St. Landry into St. Martin parish. Named for the Arnaud Brothers [Jacques, Marc-Antoine and Dominique Arnaud] who had donated a large amount of land to the town to make a Church for whites and blacks (which still exists today).
|Location on the Bayou teche not fully established. Those at this location on the April 25, 1763 census of Attakapas are shown later at Le Point de Repos [see entry below]|
|La Murière [Also La Jonction]||Arnaudville|
|La Petite Anse [also, McCall & Marsh Island]||Avery Island|
|La Pointe - see Pont du Breaux|
La Pointe de Bon Repos, La Pointe de Repos, Le Pointe au Repos, Quartier de La Pointe du Repos, l'ance du Bon repos, L'ance (anse) a (au) Michaud, La Prairie a Michaud and Prairie Michaud
Note: One of the Inhabitants was Pierre Michaud who was a Sacristan, an officer who was charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and its contents - see Wikipedia for additional information.
Bayou Teche just above present-day Parks.
According to Dr. Shane K. Bernard in his Bayou Teche Dispatches Blog at http://bayoutechedispatches.blogspot.com/, a 1771 map drawn by Surveyor Francois Gonsoulin has the names of the settlers at "Quartier de La Pointe du Repos" (Area of La Pointe du Repos). The names of the settlers shown on Gonsoulin's map are (from left to right) Aman Thibodeau, Paul Thibodeau, François Guilbeau, Michel Bernard, Simon LeBlanc, Charles Guilbeau, Mary Guilbeau veuve (widow) Babineau, Sylvain Broussard, and the Widow Ducrest (née Wils [Wiltz]).
A detail from Gertrude Taylor's 1979 reconstruction titled "Land Grants along the Teche" shows the same setters (with one exception) that appear on Gonsoulin’s map and that she places them near a bend in Bayou Teche just above present-day Parks, Louisiana. The settlers are, from north to south, Aman Thibodeau, Paul Thibodeaux, François Guilbeau, Michael (Michel) Bernard, Simon Leblanc, Francois Guilbeau, Charles Babineau, and Armand Ducrest. Only Sylvain Broussard is missing.
Note: Sylvain Broussard is missing from the the 1979 list because he died March 3, 1804, and his lands were dicided among his wife and his children. His widow, Felicite [Félise] died before Jan. 28, 1818 and her land was sold.
All the names mentioned are descendant of Joseph Guilbeau dit L'Officier and his wife Magdeleine Michel. Joseph died August 31, 1765. Below are the marriages for the children of Joseph and Magdeleine Michel:
Anne m. Louis-Charles Babineaux; Charles m. Marguerite Bourg; Marguerite's sister, Gertrude Bourg; Marie M. Michel Bernard; Marguerite m. Simon-Joseph LeBlanc [my 5th great-granduncle] - she was his 2nd wife, his first wife was Catherine Louise Thibodeaux; Rosalie m. Paul Thibodeaux who was a first cousin, once-removed of Catherine Louise Thibodeaux; Felicite m. Sylvain Broussard [see Note above re Sylvain]; Francois m. Magdeleine Broussard who was a first cousin once-removed of Sylvain; Jean m. Marie-Jeanne Arceneaux, daughter of Pierre Arceneaux and Anne Bergeron [Note: Pierre and Anne Bergeron were initially on The Acadian Coast and Pierre is considered by some to be the "Gabriel" of the poem Evangeline!]; and, Armand Ducrest is a grandson of Louis Armand Ducrest and Catherine Wiltz. His parents were Laurent Ducrest and Marthe Castille, daughter of Joseph Castille and Osite Landry. Osite's first husband was Joseph Broussard, son of Claude and Anne Babin, who was Sylvain's first cousin.
|La Prairie au Large||Loreauville|
|Lafayette, City of
Independent City established in 1832. Not the same as the current City of Lafayette [see Vermilionville below]
|Annexed by the City of New Orleans in 1852 & became the Fourth District|
|Lake Flamand &
Lac Tasse [also shown as Le Lac]
Note: Flamand was a dit name for Grevemberg
|Spanish Lake [outside New Iberia heading toward Cade on La. 182]|
|Lavaudais Plantation||Garden District
Famous for its 19th century homes and gardens, this area was originally part of the Livaudais Plantation. Became part of City of Lafayette, 1833. Annexed by City of New Orleans, 1852. Designated National Historic Landmark, 1974.
|Le Petit Paris [also see and Pinaudville]||St. Martinville|
|Le Poste de Pointe Coupée||New Roads|
|Lieu dit Chetimachas [also Indian Creek]||Charenton
[Note: Charenton was also the original site for New Iberia. The site was moved when the spring rains flooded the area]
This Spanish mission, fort (presidio) and village was established in 1717 as the mission San Miguel de los Adaes. It was the only Spanish mission established in Louisiana, and was destroyed by the French in 1721. The Spaniards rebuilt the mission, protecting it with a fortified presidio next to the old site. A small village grew up beside it, and Los Adaes became the capital of the Texas frontier until 1773.
Just off SH 6, two miles northeast of Robeline. Only rubble remains, but the site is a state historic park. See map of El Camino Real which ran over 1600 miles from Los Adaes to Mexico City
|Lydia Plantation & Olivier
The modern community of Lydia is named for the old Lydia
Plantation, which was begun about the turn of the century by Hypolite
Patout and named for a daughter who died young. The original settlement
centered around what is now the Olivier Plantation Store on the Weeks
Island Road (Hwy. 83). Note: The Olivier Plantation Store is listed on
the National Register of Historic Places.
Note: St. Nicholas Catholic Church was founded in Patoutville in 1868 and moved to Lydia in the 1960's.
|Malbrough Settlement||Shriever, LA|
Marais Carlin [Carlin Pond], Grand Marais [Big Pond]
The Post Office serving Delcambre was previously called Peigneur & Gregg. Also, a train station at Delcambre was called Meadows.
|Massacre Island [Isle Massacre]||Dauphin Island, Alabama|
|Misery [Nickname for Ste. Genevieve]|
|Mission of St.
First White Settlement in current-day Missouri - established by the Jesuits in 1700 [had been a gathering/trading point for Indians since 1682]. It was abandoned in 1703 because of the unhealthy swamps nearby.
current-day St. Louis, Missouri
Note: St. Louis, MO was settled in 1764
Moliasonville named for Jacque Moliason
Jacque Moliason was the father of Sophie Moliason who married Pierre Broussard, son of Charles Broussard - see San Miguel below.
First sited as Indian portage to Lake Pontchartrain and Gulf in 1699 by Bienville and Iberville. Founded by Bienville in 1718; named by him in honor of the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France. Called the Crescent City because of location in bend of the Mississippi
Name given to Baton Rouge when the territory East of the Mississippi River [except for New Orleans] was given to the British in 1763. The area was captured in 1779 by General Galvez.
Nueva Iberia [named by the Spanish Settlers from Malaga (and a few from the Canary Islands) for the Iberian penisula] [also called petite fausse pointe]
Note: The original settlement reached on Feb. 11, 1779 was at current-day Charenton, LA. Flooding caused by the Spring rains forced the relocation to the current site. Land was bought from Joseph Prevost dit Collet and the settlers were in temporary housing by April 21, 1779.
Traveled on by Iberville, 1699 and named for the French minister of Marine. Indians called it Okwa-ta, wide water. First port of embarkation was at the site where bayou St. John flows from this lake. It was the first water route to the city of New Orleans.
|Old Biloxi: Fort Maurepas [First French Settlement in Colonial Louisiana: 1699-1702] Note: The French returned briefly to Old Biloxi before selecting New Orleans as the Capitol.||Ocean Springs, MS|
|Old Mobile - see Twenty-27 Mile Bluff below||n/a|
|Old Portage, The
Short trail from Lake Pontchartrain to river shown by Indians to Iberville and Bienville, 1699. Winding trail used by early travelers to city. From Bayou St. John it lead to N. Broad, Bayou Road, Vieux CarrÈ to Mississippi River at site between Dumaine and Gov. Nicholls Streets.
Current parishes of St. Landry, Evangeline, Acadia, Allen, Beauregard, Calcasieu, Cameron, Jefferson Davis and portions of Vernon, Lafayette & Vermilion
|Orange Island [also Butte a Peigneur; Côte Carlin; Pine & Miller's Island]||Jefferson Island|
|Paincourt [See also Laclede's Village]||St. Louis, Missouri|
|Parc Perdu Plantation||Plantation Home of David Weeks and his wife Clara Conrad from 1818-Spring 1834. It was located on Bayou Parc Perdu West of New Iberia in-between New Iberia and Lake Peigneur. David Weeks later built The Shadows-on-the-Teche [originally named Home Place]. Ironically, David Weeks lived in The Shadows for only a few days before leaving for a trip to New Haven, Connecticut for medical treatment. where he died on August 23, 1834.|
South boundary of Tangipahoa Parish. Part of line dividing Isle of Orleans from Florida Parishes. Boundary between British West Florida and Spanish Louisiana, 1763-1783; Spanish West Florida and French Louisiana, 1803; U.S. and Spanish West Florida, 1803-1810.
|Palmetto [aka Petit Bayou]||
LEBEAU, SSJ, Rev. Pierre Oscar (1870-1915). Fr. Pierre Oscar LEBEAU was born on 24 Feb. 1870 in Pointe Coupee Parish. His parents were A.O. LEBEAU and E. BERGERON. He made his preparatory studies for the priesthood at St. Mary's College, Kansas. He entered St. Joseph's Seminary in 1890 and was ordained a priest at St. Joseph's Seminary by Bishop CURTIS in May, 1895, His first assignment was at St. Peter Claver in Baltimore. In 1896, he was transferred to St. Francis Xavier's Church in the same city. In September, 1897, he was appointed the founding pastor of Immaculate Conception Church in Palmetto, Louisiana. This was the first Josephite mission in Louisiana. Palmetto was also called Petite Bayou. In 1902, a convent was built by the people and Fr. LEBEAU. Finally, in March, 1909, he was sent to be pastor of St. Dominic's Church in New Orleans, Louisiana, which position he held at the time of his death. He was buried near Immaculate Conception Church. He died in New Orleans on 27 Dec. 1915, During his twenty years of ministry Fr. LEBEAU labored unceasingly for the cause to which he gave his life. He was always faithful to his duty, zealous for souls, and loved by his people--which is the best that can be said for any priest. According to the tombstone inscription: "First Josephite Missionary in Louisiana." The name of the town of Palmetto was changed to LEBEAU, Louisiana in his honor.
Simeon Patout Sr., a native of Ussy, France, arrived in Louisiana in 1825. With his wife Appoline Fournier he started Enterprise Plantation which has remained in family hands every since. Simeon came from a family of grape growers and had hoped to establish a winery at Enterprise. Conditions were not correct and the attempt was unsuccessful. Simeon was born 18 Feb 1791 in Ussy and died in 1847. His wife ran the plantation until their son Hippolyte took over the plantation operation. The family continues to run Enterprise Plantation, Patoutville, Louisiana. It is a National Landmark and the oldest continually operating family owned sugar plantation in the United States
Note: St. Nicholas Catholic Church was founded in Patoutville in 1868 and moved to Lydia in the 1960's.
|Peigneur - see Marais Carlin [Carlin Pond]|
|Petit Bayou - see Palmetto||LeBeau|
|Petit Manchac [also Grand Prairie and Vermilionville]||Lafayette|
Pinaudville is the old name for the part of St. Martinville that is located across the bayou from the church and the rest of town
Thanks to Dr. Shane K. Bernard for providing this information. See Books Page for books by Dr. Bernard.
|There are still North and South Pinaud Streets in St. Martinville in this area.|
|Plaquemine Brule||Church Point|
Pont du Breaux [La Pointe]
Note: Firmin Breaux was at a place named Bayou Tortue on the April 25, 1766 census of Attakapas. He is on the Census of the Acadian Coast of Sept. 14, 1769. In 1774, he petitioned the Governor to return to Attakapas. Records show his location as La Pointe and La Grande Pointe. He bought land form Jean François Ledée, a wealthy New Orleans merchant who had acquired the land as a French land grant. By 1774, Breaux's branding iron was registered, and by 1786 he was one of the largest property owners in the Bayou Teche country.
In 1799, Breaux built a footbridge across the Bayou Teche to help ease the passage for his family and neighbors. This first bridge was a suspension footbridge, likely made of rope and small planks. It was stabilized by being tied to small pilings located at each end of the bridge, as well as to a pair of huge live oak trees on both sides of the bayou. When traveling directions were given, residents would often instruct people to "go to Breaux's bridge...", which eventually was adopted as the city's name.
In 1817, Firmin's son Agricole built the first vehicular bridge, allowing for the passage of wagons and increased commerce in the area. The town received its official founding in 1829 when Scholastique Picou Breaux, Agricole's widow, drew up a plan called Plan de la Ville Du Pont des Breaux for the city and began developing the property by selling lots to other Acadian settlers. A church parish was created in 1847 and in 1859, Breaux Bridge was officially incorporated.
In 1959, the Louisiana legislature officially designated Breaux Bridge as "la capitale Mondiale de l'ecrevisse" ("the Crawfish Capital of the World")
In 1765 Charles Barre bought 8800 arpents from Jacque Guillaume Courtableau, 1st Commandant, Opelousas Post. Here Bayou Courtableau gives birth to Bayou Teche
|Poste du Ouachita||Monroe, LA|
Queue de Tortue [Line of turtles]
Named for the merchant Jules Pouppeville and dating back to the 1850s. Pouppeville was once a stagecoach stop. The town was disassembled, carried north by oxen one mile to meet the railroad, & rebuilt at Rayne Station in 1881
|Prairie Bellevue||Between present-day Sunset and Opelousas|
|Prairie des Coteaux [Prairie of the Hills]||East of present Opelousas corporate limits|
|Prairie Gros Chevreuil [Prairie of Big Deer]||Pecaniere|
|Prairie des Femmes||between present-day Grand Coteau and Arnaudville|
State Capital. Named by Iberville 1699 from Indian name Iti Humma, Red Pole. Village settled 1721. British, 1763 - 1779; Spanish 1779-1810. Republic of West Florida, 1810
|River of the Chitimachas||Bayou Lafourche|
Riviere D'Erbane [Riviere Derbanne]
Bayou La Batre, AL
As part of the French settlement of the Gulf Coast, the bayou was originally called "Riviere D'Erbane" and acquired the present name from the French-maintained battery of artillery on the west bank ("bayou of the battery"). Bayou La Batre was the first permanent settlement on the south Mobile County mainland and was founded in 1786, when Joseph Bouzage (Bosarge) [1733-95] moved into the area and was awarded a 1,259-acre Spanish land grant on the bayou's west bank.
Born in Poitiers, France, Joseph Bouzage came to the Gulf Coast circa 1760, married Catherine Louise Baudreau (Boudreau) on June 5, 1762, and was the father of seven children, including one son, Jean Baptiste.
San Miguel [St. Michel]
The plantation of Michael Mahier was named San Miguel for which the town of St. Michel was named. St. Michel later became Port Allen.
Note: The land next to the San Miguel Plantation was owned by Charles Broussard [1743-1791] and it later became the site of the ferry landing.
Originally a Spanish settlement and early port on Amite River route from Mississippi River via Bayou Manchac. First called Scivicque’s Ferry for Vincent Scivicque, native of Italy. Site of parish courthouse 1872-1881
|St. Ferdinand||Florissant, Missouri|
St. Gabriel of Iberville aka St. Gabriel of Manchac
Note: Acadians who arrived in 1767 from Maryland were sent to St. Gabriel
|St. Gabriel, Iberville Parish|
St. James Parish: Origin of Place Names [Source: Cabanocey...p 73-75]
Paulina was La Longue Vue for the long view of the Mississippi River. The story for the name is that a nun named Paulina dropped her prayer book with her name in it and the place where it was found was named Paulina.
The Welham Plantation was named for someone of that name. The railway station became Oneida, and the post office Hester. A subsequent owner of Welham, Mr. Leon Keller named his son Leon Desire Welham Keller.
Belmont is the location of a large Indian mound. The French said "Qu'elle belle moule!" In time belle moule became Belmont.
Burton & Lutcher wewre named after the owners of saw mills.
Gramercy was named after the Gramercy Park in New York by Mr. Spellman who was connected with the Colonial Sugars.
College Point is deduced from the college built on the point - a big bend in the river.
Convent was simply St. Michel for a long time but later became Convent because of the Sacred Heart Convent built there.
Timberton was a saw mill and village built away from the river near the swamp - a town in the timber or Timberton.
St. James was first called Cabahannocer - later Cantrelle - but it finally held on to the name of the St. James Church.
White Hall was first the domain of the Brinigier family and was named after their big white house or White Hall.
Romeville was once the site of the Webre plantation. The Webres intermarried with the Romes and because of the many Rome families, the village became Romeville. The Romes are descendants of Johann Rommel who with his wife and two children were among the forty Germans who arrived on the ship Deux Frères on March 1, 1721 [213 persons had sailed for Louisiana ont he ship!]
Union was first called Pointville because the land there spreads fan-like from centric point sisty-six far back in the woods to the river. Later Pointeville became known as Pape Vert because of a famous gambling place of that name. Afterwards, it took the name Sté Marie du Fleuve. The first post office in that section was on Union Plantation. Later the postoffice was moved nearer the church and the village became known officially as Union.
Located on the Mississippi River about 65 miles downstream from St. Louis. It was the easiest access to the Mississippi River from the lead mines. Philip Francois Renault, the director-general of the mining operation who was a wealthy Paris banker, arrived in 1723. Among the many famous persons of Ste. Genevieve are Moses Austin and his son, Stephen. Also John James Audubon who was born in Louisiana in 1780. He went to Ste. Genevieve as a businessman and left as a birdwatcher!
Ste. Genevieve, Missouri
|St. Louis River||Archaic expression used for the Mississippi River|
|San Miguel [St. Michel]||Port Allen|
|St. Reyne Concession
Site of early Houmas & Tunica Indian villages. French St. Reyne Concession, 1717; later abandoned. British & Spanish Colonial Eras, 1763-1810; Independent state of West Florida; annexed by United States 1810
|San Fernando de las Barrancas
[St. Ferdinand on the Bluffs]
Est. in 1795 in the territory of the Chickasaw Indians across from El Diamante Island and near the Carondelet and Las Casas Rivers.
Created 1897 and closed 1917, New Orleans’ famous legalized redlight district was in this area. Among the many great jazz musicians on the scene here were King Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Tony Jackson and Jimmie Noone.
|Tabiscana||Vacherie - see book by Elton J. Oubre|
Terra de Buyes [Terre-aux-Boeufs][also called Concepcion], east of the Mississippi River about 12 miles below New Orleans, at a Settlement called Galveztown y Senora de Galvez
Note: Canary Island settlers were led to this location by Pierre Philippe Marigny de Mandeville, Galvez' brother-in-law.
For Names of Settlers - see http://www.thecajuns.com/surnames.htm#Canary_Island_Settlers
|St. Bernard Parish, LA|
Line established by Pinckney Treaty, Oct. 27, 1795, dividing southern United States and Spanish West Florida. Recognized U.S. claim dating back to American Revolution, 1783.
|North boundary of Tangipahoa Parish|
|Tigerville||Gibson [named in 1888 for senior Louisiana Senator] - Gibson was also known as Gibson City|
|Twenty-seven mile bluff on the Mobile River||
Fort St. Louis de la Louisiane - Old Mobile, the capital of French Louisiana from 1702 - 1711. In 1711, the capital was relocated to the head of Mobile Bay, the site of the present-day Mobile.
From 1699 to 1702, the French capital was first at Fort La Boulaye on the lower Mississippi River and then at Fort Maurepas on Biloxi Bay. In 1718, New Orleans was established. In 1720, the French Capital was moved from Mobile to Biloxi and in 1722, it was moved from Biloxi to New Orleans.
|Vacherie [cattle ranch]||Regional area of St. James Parish - see description of book Vacherie on Books Page|
Valenzuela dans la Fourche was located on the left bank of Bayou Lafourche 80 miles west of New Orleans in Ascension Parish
Founded under Spanish rule c. 1778 by Canary Islanders, later joined by Acadians and others. Post was below site of current-day Belle Alliance Plantation and above Plattenville, Assumption Parish. See map on page 66 of the book The Canary Islanders of Louisiana by Gilbert C. Din
Near this site on April 9, 1682, LaSalle claimed Louisiana for France. Father Zenobius Membre, a member of the expedition, sang the Te Deum. On March 3, 1699, Father Anastase Douay, a member of Iberville’s expedition, celebrated the first mass of record in French Louisiana
|Vermilionville [also Grand Prairie and Petit Manchac]||Lafayette|
|Vidalia, LA - see Concordia above||Vidalia|
West Florida and the Florida Parishes of Louisiana
See the Introduction in PDF format from the book An Index to the 1820 Census of Louisiana's Florida Parishes and 1812 St. Tammany Parish Tax List compiled by Mary Elizabeth Sanders for the background and timeframes of West Florida. See the Books page for the Index.
|Florida, parts of Mississippi and the Florida Parishes in Louisiana: the present-day parishes of East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, West Feliciana, St. Helena, Livingston, Tangipahoa, St. Tammany and Washington.|
John Wharton Collins donated land and founded Wharton in 1813. Town was named for his grandfather, John Wharton. Legislature granted charter March 11, 1816, and changed name to Covington, in honor of General Leonard A. Covington, war hero of 1812. See history of Covington.
Why did the Acadians name places on a prairie île [island], pointe, anse [bay] and Côte Gelées [frozen hills]? The book [pub. 1943] The Bayous of Louisiana by Harnett T. Kane, pages 277 - 279 provides an explanation:
"The Louisiana prairies begin at the east from a line of mild bluffs not far from the Teche, which the geologists declare are the edge of the alluvial plain through which the known courses of the Mississippi can be traced. The beginnings of the prairies have a series of slight and pleasant rolls; and in these, too, the scientists have found traces of the great river...
Early visitors were reminded of wide billows of a vast sea; viewed from a point on one of these mounds, the uniform surfaces of grass change like waves as the wind slips over them.
The Acadians also were impressed with this resemblance. When they came upon a dark patch of wood, surrounded by the lighter grass, the called it an " île." Where the wood jutted sharply into the prairie like an edge of land in the water, it was a "pointe." A section partly protected by extensions of the trees was an "anse" or bay. The Acadian, of course, had a background of life at the water's edge, and this he demonstrated in other ways. When he wanted to cross the prairie, he used the word "naviguer" [navigate]. He said that he would "embarquer" in his buggy or "mettre la voile" [set sail] on the green; and he "moored" his mount...
To one of the lower stretches, the Acadians gave a descriptive title, "Côte Gelées" [Frozen Hillsides]. One explanation is that the settlers, coming in winter near a place of slight mounds above the prairie, camped in the vicinity. Rising the next morning, they beheld all of the scene outlined in a white frost; the Acadian girls called out the name, and it was never forgotten. A more prosaic version declares that the shivering arrivals looked in vain for wood and used the words in mockery..."
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